3.1 Hardware


The hardware topic deals with a computer system consisting of input devices, output devices, a central
processing unit and storage. ITGS students are required to understand the meaning of the terms and
concepts listed here and, where appropriate, briefly describe how they work.
The increasing tendency to develop hardware in modular units raises a range of social impacts and ethical
issues such as the use of non-renewable natural resources, the global transportation of manufactured
components and their eventual disposal by individuals, organizations and governments. Students are
expected to discuss possible solutions and evaluate their effectiveness. (IBO)

IT concepts to address in this topic

The computer system
• Types of computers: personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop, desktop computer
• MAC address
• Motherboard
• Central processing unit (CPU), microprocessor, clock speed: for example, megahertz (MHz), gigahertz
(GHz), terahertz (THz)
• Primary storage: read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM)
Syllabus content
Information technology in a global society guide 27
• Secondary storage: optical, magnetic, flash memory: for example, USB (universal serial bus) flash drive
• Bit, byte, kilobyte (KB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB), terabyte (TB), petabyte (PB), exabyte (EB),
zettabyte (ZB), yottabyte (YB)
• Character encoding: ASCII (Unicode and American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
• Ports
Input and output devices
• Keyboards, mice, touch pads
• Optical mark recognition (OMR), optical character recognition (OCR), magnetic ink character
recognition (MICR), radio frequency identification (RFID), radio tag, bar code scanners, magnetic stripe
• Microphones
• Smart card readers
• Webcams, digital cameras, digital video cameras
• Sensors, probes, real-time data collection
• Composite devices: for example, game controllers
• Touch-sensitive devices: for example, pads
• Printers, monitors, speakers, projectors
• CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory), DVD (digital versatile/video disk) readers and burners


Follow the links below go to pages with details of the hardware covered:
Bits and Bytes
Types of computer systems
Input Devices
Output Devices
Storage Devices

Legendary Prezi on Hardware Components

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